Bandwagon is one of the most common techniques in both wartime and peacetime and plays an important part in modern advertise. Bandwagon is besides one of the seven main propaganda techniques identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis in 1938. Bandwagon is an entreaty to the subject to follow the crowd, to join in because others are doing therefore adenine well. Bandwagon propaganda is, basically, trying to convince the subject that one side is the winning side, because more people have joined it. The subject is meant to believe that since indeed many people have joined, that victory is inevitable and defeat impossible. Since the average person always wants to be on the acquire side, he or she is compelled to join in. however, in modern propaganda, bandwagon has taken a new eddy. The subject is to be convinced by the propaganda that since everyone else is doing it, they will be left out if they do not. This is, efficaciously, the opposite of the early type of bandwagon, but normally provokes the same results. Subjects of bandwagon are compelled to join in because everyone else is doing so deoxyadenosine monophosphate well. When confronted with bandwagon propaganda, we should weigh the pros and cons of joining in independently from the amount of people who have already joined, and, as with most types of propaganda, we should seek more information .
Card stack, or selective omission, is one of the seven techniques identified by the IPA, or Institute for Propaganda Analysis. It involves lone presenting information that is incontrovertible to an mind or proposal and omitting data contrary to it. Card stack is used in about all forms of propaganda, and is extremely effective in convincing the public. Although the majority of information presented by the card stacking approach is on-key, it is dangerous because it omits important information. The best way to deal with card stack is to get more information .
Glittering generalities was one of the seven main propaganda techniques identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis in 1938. It besides occurs very frequently in politics and political propaganda. Glittering generalities are words that have different cocksure entail for individual subjects, but are linked to highly valued concepts. When these words are used, they demand approval without think, simply because such an important concept is involved. For example, when a person is asked to do something in “ defense of democracy ” they are more likely to agree. The concept of majority rule has a convinced intension to them because it is linked to a concept that they value. Words frequently used as aglitter generalities are honor, aura, love of state, and specially in the United States, freedom. When coming across with glittering generalities, we should specially consider the merits of the idea itself when separated from specific words .
Lesser of Two Evils:
The “ lesser of two evils ” technique tries to convince us of an idea or proposal by presenting it as the least offensive option. This technique is often implemented during wartime to convince people of the need for sacrifices or to justify unmanageable decisions. This technique is often accompanied by adding blame on an enemy area or political group. One theme or marriage proposal is much depicted as one of the alone options or paths. When confronted with this proficiency, the submit should consider the respect of any proposal independently of those it is being compared with .
name calling occurs often in politics and wartime scenarios, but very rarely in advertise. It is another of the seven chief techniques designated by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis. It is the use of derogative lyric or words that carry a negative intension when describing an enemy. The propaganda attempts to arouse prejudice among the public by labeling the aim something that the public dislikes. Often, list calling is employed using sarcasm and derision, and shows up often in political cartoons or writings. When examining name calling propaganda, we should attempt to separate our feelings about the name and our feelings about the actual idea or proposal .
Pinpointing the Enemy:
Pinpointing the foe is used extremely much during wartime, and besides in political campaigns and debates. This is an undertake to simplify a complex situation by presenting one specific group or person as the foe. Although there may be early factors involved the subject is urged to just view the situation in terms of clear-cut right and amiss. When coming in contact with this technique, the subject should attempt to consider all early factors tied into the position. As with about all propaganda techniques, the subjugate should attempt to find more information on the subject. An inform person is much less susceptible to this sort of propaganda .
The plain folks propaganda technique was another of the seven chief techniques identified by the IPA, or Institute for Propaganda Analysis. The plain family device is an attack by the propagandist to convince the populace that his views reflect those of the coarse person and that they are besides working for the benefit of the common person. The propagandist will frequently attempt to use the emphasis of a particular consultation ampere well as using specific idioms or jokes. besides, the propagandist, particularly during speeches, may attempt to increase the magic trick through fallible pronunciation, bumble, and a more limited vocabulary. Errors such as these serve add to the impression of earnestness and spontaneity. This technique is normally most effective when used with glittering generalities, in an attack to convince the public that the propagandist views about highly valued ideas are similar to their own and therefore more valid. When confronted by this type of propaganda, the subject should consider the proposals and ideas individually from the personality of the donor .
simplification is highly similar to pinpointing the enemy, in that it often reduces a building complex site to a clear-cut choice involving commodity and evil. This proficiency is frequently useful in swaying uneducated audiences. When faced with simplification, it is often useful to examine other factors and pieces of the marriage proposal or idea, and, as with all other forms of propaganda, it is essential to get more information .
Testimonials are another of the seven independent forms of propaganda identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis. Testimonials are quotations or endorsements, in or out of context, which attempt to connect a celebrated or goodly person with a product or item. Testimonials are identical close connected to the transfer technique, in that an attempt is made to connect an agreeable person to another token. Testimonials are often used in advertise and political campaigns. When coming across testimonials, the submit should consider the merits of the detail or proposal independently of the person of organization giving the testimonial .
transmit is another of the seven main propaganda terms first used by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis in 1938. transfer is frequently used in politics and during wartime. It is an attack to make the capable view a certain token in the lapp way as they view another item, to link the two in the subjects mind. Although this proficiency is frequently used to transfer negative feelings for one aim to another, it can besides be used in cocksure ways. By linking an item to something the subject respects or enjoys, positivist feelings can be generated for it. however, in politics, transmit is most frequently used to transfer blame or bad feelings from one politician to another of his friends or party members, or evening to the party itself. When confronted with propaganda using the transfer proficiency, we should question the merits or problems of the marriage proposal or idea independently of convictions about other objects or proposals .
hypertext transfer protocol : //library.thinkquest.org/C0111500/proptech.htm
Vagueness : is a frequent indicator of propaganda in news report. “ Remember the following first rule of disinformation psychoanalysis : truth is specific, lie is dim, ” writes Gregory Sinaisky. “ Always look for palpable details in coverage and if the painting is not in focus, there must be reasons for it. ”
Contradiction: Information is presented that is in direct resistance to other information within the same controversy .
exercise : If person stated that schools were overstaffed, then later argued for the necessity of more counselors, that person would be guilty of contradiction .
Accident: person fails to recognize ( or conceals the fact ) that an argument is based on an exception to the predominate .
Example : By using selected scholar-athletes as the norm, one could argue that larger sports programs in schools were vital to improving academic operation of all students .
False Cause : A temporal order of events is confused with causality ; or, person oversimplifies a building complex causal network. exemplar : Stating that hapless performance in schools is caused by poverty ; poverty surely contributes to poor academic performance but it is not the only factor .
Begging the Question: A person makes a claim then argues for it by advancing grounds whose meaning is merely equivalent to that of the original claim. This is besides called “ circular reasoning. ” example : person argues that schools should continue to have textbooks read from cover to cover because, otherwise, students would not be knowing. When asked to define what “ knowing ” means, the person says, “ knowing what is in the textbook. ”
Evading the Issue: Someone hedge and issue by changing the topic. model : When asked to say whether or not the presence of homosexuals in the army could be a disruptive force, a loudspeaker presents examples of homosexuals winning fight medals for fearlessness .
Arguing from Ignorance: person argues that a claim is justified simply because its opposite can not be rise. case : A person argues that voucher programs will not harm schools, since no one has ever proven that vouchers have harmed schools .
Composition and Division: : constitution involves an assertion about a whole that is true of its parts. Division is the opposite : an assertion about all of the parts that is genuine about the whole. exemplar : When a school system holds up its above-average scores and claims that its students are superior, it is committing the fallacy of division. overall scores may be higher but that does not prove all students are performing at that horizontal surface. Likewise, when the military points to the easy behavior of some homosexuals, it is committing the fallacy of constitution : the demeanor of some can not serve as proof of-the behavior of all homosexuals .
Poisoning the Well: A person is thus commit to a place that he/she explains away absolutely everything others offer in opposition. example : about every advocate and opponent on the ban on gays in the military commits this error .
Ad Hominem: A person rejects a claim on the basis of derogative facts ( real or alleged ) about the person making the claim. example : person rejects President Clinton ’ s reasons for lifting the ban on gays in the military because of Mr. Clinton ’ s draft record .
Appealing to Force: person uses threats to establish the robustness of the claim. example : Opponents of year-round school threaten to keep their children out of school during the summer months .
Appeal to Authority: Authority is evoked as the last bible on an return. exercise : person uses the Bible as the basis for his arguments against specific school reform issues .
Appeal to the People: person attempts to justify a claim on the basis of popularity. model : Opponents of year-round school claim that students would hate it .
Appeal to Emotion: An emotion-laden “ sob ” history is used as validation for a call. example : A politician uses a sad history of a child being killed in a drive-by inject to gain support for a year-round school meter .
hypertext transfer protocol : //academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/404.htm
The Most Successful Propaganda Techniques
A list of the most coarse, and successful, propaganda techniques presently in use. If you spend any time at all consuming batch media, you will find these techniques familiar.
# 1. Guilt By Association: This is used to damage person ’ randomness reputation by associating them with an unattractive person or organization. It doesn ’ t matter if there is an actual association or not.
example : Kristen said that excessively many people were moving into the South without the input of Americans already living there. “ This land is for my grandchildren, not global wide social experiments. She lives a couple states away from where David Duke has his national position, and some think many in the area feel the way she does .
# 2. Backstroke: systematically belittling the goals of the capable of the article as the goals are being listed. For every footstep forth for the subject, the propagandist pulls the reviewer bet on.
exemplar : This year the political party ’ randomness stated goal is to give the rally a warm atmosphere. We walked into the cave-like amphitheater as the preparations for the call up were taking position. “ We ’ re trying to create a kin atmosphere ” said one representative of the party as he squinted into the coarse lights. “ There are the children ’ s rides ” he said happily pointing to where union workmen smashed open wooden crates with iron crowbars .
# 3. Misinformation: This is a elusive technique, it involves reporting information in such a way that the final message of the story is not true, it ’ s what the propagandist wants you to believe. example : recently a well known conservative tried to run advertisements in university newspapers addressing slave reparations for black Americans. The writer listed several facts which he felt demonstrate why reparations are not necessity and not bazaar. One of these facts was the fact that black Americans in the United States today earn, on average, around 20 times more than blacks living in Africa, and consequently, according to the author, descendents of slaves are actually far better off today than the people who remained behind. A second author, writing about the ad, stated only that “ the first author said that blacks were better off being slaves. ”, but didn ’ triiodothyronine explain the facts the beginning author had shared. Imagine if you read the second author ’ s report and weren ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate familiar with the first writer ’ s position. You would think the first generator was a monster for saying that people were lucky to be slaves ! But that ’ s not what the foremost writer said, he said their descendants have a lot more money now than the people still living in the original countries have. This is misinformation, you ’ re given a one-half truth about person ’ mho placement, and it is presented in a deceptive manner .
# 4. Over Humanization: It is a absolutely valid proficiency to tell a narrative by focusing on the substantial people who the floor impacts. however, this is besides an easily proficiency for handling when a propagandist tries to mask an topic by making anyone who has a valid disagreement search malefic due to all the human suffer talked about in the story. exercise : digest in the dusty desert was Juanita Lopez Camal Esquedo and her 15 athirst children. half of the children were blind, the other half were crippled. As the smallest child, fiddling Juanita, looked across the barb wire fence into America, she begged her ma for some food. Since everyone in Mexico had died of starvation, and food would never grow there again, there was nowhere else for them to go. And after all, this was the only family that wanted to come into America anyhow. Just one more family. Over humanization can be used not lone with illegal immigration, but besides with any other potential tear-jerker topic .
# 5. Name Calling: This is officially the oldest whoremaster in the book. It is cheap and easy. Often immigration reform activists are called anti-immigrant, people who are against country sponsored racism are called “ racists ” themselves. Name calling clouds and confuses issues, and when repeated by enough people on one side of an emergence, creates a weight of its own, which isn ’ t in truth there, but must immediately be explained before the victim “ may ” have an opinion regarding the issue in interview. model : By saying that the population is growing besides quickly, many people assumed she was a racist .
# 6. He Said, She Said: This is a proficiency whereby the generator can say something they know international relations and security network ’ thyroxine true, or isn ’ t fair, but they want to say it anyhow. case : project USA is a group which claims to support reasonable levels of immigration. They ’ ve put up billboards with Department of Statistics information which states that the US population will double within 50 years. The billboards have pictures of children of different races with the words “ The population of the US will double within this child ’ second life. Stop it congress ”. Some people say this is hate speech. note : a statistic ( the fact that the US population will double at current levels of immigration ) can not be hateful. This is just a numerical fact, like saying water system freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit. The generator knows this is an unfair affirmation, but wants to say it anyhow. That ’ south why she says “ some people say ”, quite than “ I say ” .
# 7. Unproven “Facts”: This is when a ( normally unfledged ) “ writer ” is madly trying to “ prove ” a place and they begin to quote “ studies ”, “ reports ”, and “ experts ” as “ proving ” this or that, but they never mention the report ’ s identify, localization, where copies can be found, or the conditions specific to the experiments. Example : holocene studies show that the media is right 99 % of the time. besides, an technical from the University of Happiness was quoted as saying “ People in the media work hard than anyone who thinks they have a real number job ” .
# 8. Lying: Sometimes complete lies are told. case : An author in Arizona writes a report which states that the cause that a local mayor decided not to use the patrol to enforce immigration law was because protests by a sealed ethnic group scared him away from it. In actual fact, as stated by the mayor himself, the reason the patrol weren ’ thyroxine used was because no aim program had been set up between the patrol and the INS. Any person who was a penis of said heathen group would gain from a reputation like this because, if people begin to hear that “ that group is in truth aggressive and authorities do what they say ” then the ability of that group is enhanced, and everyone reading the “ news ” will begin thinking they should always let that group have what it wants. The fact that our police need special permission to enforce some laws and not others is a topic for another discussion .
# 9. Telling the Truth: For a While To throw people off the track, biased news services will give good accurate report for a while, normally when it no longer matters, then they will stick it to you the next prison term your guard duty is down. The best way to recognize this technique is to merely remember who the biggest transgressors are. You must understand that if person lies or tries to manipulate a history once, they will do thus again. They will never be non-biased. They will, however, say something bazaar from prison term to meter. This is due to the fact that if they were biased every time they spoke, they would soon run out of credibility. Do not trust them doubly. Would you buy a car from person who cheated you on a former purchase good because they say something you want to hear late ?
# 10. Not Talking at all about Something: Of naturally the biggest holocene case of this are the Moslem riots in France. The fact that the rioters were still burning more than one hundred cars EACH NIGHT was suppressed and avoided, rather we were fed the pipeline that the riots were over. The media went days and days not reporting on the riots which were revealing the complete bankruptcy of french social, economic, and immigration policy. however, France, being a socialistic nation, is favored by the socialistic media, so the country ’ randomness failings were not reported. When you ’ rhenium mindful of a major publish afoot, but see no coverage on it, then you can be sure the media is against the ideas which discussing that topic would raise .
# 11. Subtle Inaccuracies/Dismissive Tone Misstating a topic: frequently a good one, and pretending any object or concerned view is cockamamie, unrealistic, or good not necessary. illegal immigration is a major terror to the United States. With the rapid import of distinct, and not particularly grateful, ethnic groups who have no pastime in anything american, we create division, conflict, and risk. This is a hazard that will grow to overwhelm our children. One writer used a childlike, grandmotherly tone to try to belittle and dismiss this serious subject. Her style was to write with pleasantries such as “ oh, my you ’ ve turn, count at the happy large new population ”. This is an intentional disservice to the readers and an try to manipulate them into not recognizing the risk they and their children face of being supplanted in their own home once and for all by foreigners, who, by the way, won ’ metric ton wish about you once they outnumber you. At best, this is a foolish policy. At worst, it is self destruction. In any case, it must be controlled responsibly if we are to remain masters of our own future. This generator ’ randomness method acting is barely one way to use a dismissive tone to trick people into not recognizing the topic ’ randomness seriousness. The following clock you ’ re reading an article which seems to speak childishly of a serious return, you should be aware that in all probability the writer doesn ’ t fail to understand the seriousness of the issue, quite they may be trying to further an opposing agenda .
# 12. A One One Punch pretending to represent two sides: but one side gets a couple of great lines, the other side gets a feeble line. case : tax cuts are all the rage these days, but two senators disagree on how appropriate tax cuts would be correctly immediately. Left Senator Jones says “ The rich people are the ones getting a cut. Who needs rich people with more money ? ”. right Senator Smith doesn ’ thyroxine think that ’ s right. He thinks only certain individuals should benefit. “ The smallest number of people who enjoy this are the people with the most money ” repeated Left Senator Jones. “ I think that money belongs to all the people, and the best way to give out money the government collects through friendly tax raises is for the politics to do it ! It ’ s like all the people getting a raise ! ”, said Left Senator Jones. Right Senator Smith didn ’ t agree. He thought the money should reflect the people who had earned the most. When asked why Right Senator Smith felt this way he said “ People have to earn a support ”. Left Senator Jones said “ It is precisely this undertake by Senator Smith to keep people from earning a living that I and my party react ! ” .
# 13. Volume: This is related to Coordination, it is merely a overwhelm of the same narrative line everywhere, until it becomes dominant allele, and the media ’ second see of it becomes the dominant opinion ( Elian Gonzalez, Florida Recount, Poor Election Night Coverage ) If you pick a topic with a potent broad drawing card, you will much find that all the “ news ” stories about a given current event seem to draw a similar conclusion about it. When you notice this, fair ask yourself if it ’ s probable that, in a nation of about 300 million, no one has a legitimate oppose opinion. For model, does everyone think Republicans want to poison themselves and all the lie of us ? Does everyone want unlimited, uncontrolled, illegal immigration to displace their children ? Does everyone love working from January public treasury May for absolve to pay the government taxes ? No, they don ’ triiodothyronine .
# 14. Coordination : This occurs when a number of like mind journalists all report the same angle at about the like time. This truly doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate require a conspiracy, there are so few “ journalists ”, and they can easily see what their buddies ’ takes are on issues, then parrot the lapp line. A couple years ago we saw an article in a Southeast newspaper that actually addressed the damage being inflicted by uncontrolled immigration. We were shocked. unfortunately, there followed soon after a long rose-colored story about the fantastic immigrants saving our economy ( which was the magnet for their arrival in the first space ) at no expense to us, written by the previously honest writer, plus 5 other extra co-authors ( read “ think police ” ). It did have a bantam tilt of “ challenges ”, which was followed by an immediate rebutter, and raw comprised less than five percentage of the article, which among journalists passes for peer time. magically, a very exchangeable article appeared at the same clock time in a nearby regional newspaper written by three other authors with about the same structure, a tilt of wonderfully immigrants and everything was perfect about them. Did the “ Censoring 5 ” and “ The Three Amigos ” just happen to telepathically think the same thing, write it, and publish it at the same time ? We ’ ll let our readers decide the odds of ad-lib Identical Publishing ( S.I.P. ) for themselves .
# 15. Fogging an Issue/Total Nonsense: sometimes certain groups have an interest in making surely that as few people pay attention to an return as possible. A good propagandist can write a long, absurd article for the determination of confusing the majority of readers, who themselves work hard all day. It doesn ’ t take much for them to see a attention-getting headline, then begin to dig into a long sprawling article, then throw their hands up and say “ I don ’ t have the extra energy to decipher this ! ”. The reviewer is adjust, the defect is with the propagandist. case : The Real Reason Why We Need Tax Cuts ! A draw of people want tax cuts these days. here ’ s the real reason they might not be such a well theme. The social ramifications are themselves argue adequate ! Given a perplexing opinion of the real inter-generational battle in today ’ s “ know and let live ” society, most people make the more responsible choice. This leads us to the coherent interview, with school budgets tight, can we afford to argue over social services ? A close interrogation of IRS records plainly displays the fiduciary incentive for economic re-examination in a post-socialist sense. ( this article will then ramble on like this for 3 or 4 pages )
# 16. 2,3,4 Technique Mentioning only one side of an issue : 2, 3, or 4 times in an article, each time pretending you are about to present the opposing side, but you never do. then the article on the spur of the moment ends and the proofreader feels bombarded, outnumbered and alone. In reality the opposing view is by definition held by many people, the author merely refused to present the side of the argument he or she disagrees with. example : The decision to seal off an extra 4 million acres was a controversial one. Barbara Oaks of Centerville says “ There are great advantages to sealing the area off ”. many in township feel the same way, less traffic means less pollution, less damage to the area, and less noise. however, not everyone agrees with her. The most common complaints wear ’ thymine address the extra benefits of closing the forest, such as increased education opportunities for area children. not many opportunities like this afford themselves year round, and keeping the area closed will guarantee the educational hikes around the perimeter can continue. many longtime residents feel that closing all 4 million acres will be a charge. But preceptor ’ metric ton tell that to Steve Longmont. “ I hope they conclusion tied more ” Steve told our interviewers. “ There ’ s no good argue for heavy travel through the hale forest, and I ’ d like to see the stead prohibited ”. respective area polls show a large total of people in favor of closing the area. Keeping the afforest closed is what is best for the town .
# 17. Preemptive Strike : This is when the writer “ attacks ” the subscriber viciously at the very beginning of the article with the “ acceptable ” scene of the topic. The writer tries to “ beat it into ” the lector. example : just a couple days ago the possible presidential run of a politician who is identical pro-enforcement of immigration law was featured in an article by an East Coast wallpaper. The article began by saying the campaigner doesn ’ thyroxine expect to win because of this or that, and in fact doesn ’ metric ton think he ’ ll win at all, he good wants people to talk about immigration. nowhere in the article did the campaigner say he didn ’ t expect to win, or that he only wanted people to talk about immigration. In fact, the article pointed out that he had already visited Iowa 4 times in 6 months, not at all like person who doesn ’ t even want to win. At the end of the article were instructions on how to defeat this candidate. The opening attack on his seriousness as a candidate, and the close advice on how to defeat him are classical examples of Preemptive Strike .
# 18. Framing the Debate : Setting an argument around two “ alternatives ” which you would prefer, preferably than the true alternatives. case : The argument over how much fund to give to the project continued. Some are arguing for a reduce sum, while others want to see a much higher contribution horizontal surface. The needs for both a lower budget and a higher budget have been laid out and defended in the debate booklet, which all members of the decision making body have been reading over for the final three days. ( note : the adjust decision was to stop the project wholly, it accomplishes nothing and the people running it are stealing the money, but you weren ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate offered the choice of stopping it. )
# 19. Token Equal Time : sometimes a weak, bantam understatement is added to a propaganda assemble, apparently so the writer can pretend they had been fair. This technique is quite coarse, it consists of an article written with wholly one point of view, then at the end a meager affirmation from the opposing see is printed, it is immediately refuted, then the article either ends or continues on with the preferable orient of watch .
# 20. “Interpreting”: A statement Have you always seen a writer say that person said something, then what the person said followed, but it didn ’ thyroxine look anything like what the writer claimed was meant ? Example : The official said that they didn ’ metric ton hold anyone from the previous administration responsible for the loss. “ I think we should just focus on the future ” said the official. ( note : he didn ’ t say he didn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate hold anyone from the previous government responsible, he said we should focus on the future. See the difference ? )
# 21. Withholding Information: Is it the same as lying ? Some in the media might not want to answer that wonder. recently a campaigner for mayor of Los Angeles was portrayed as a “ elated son of an immigrant ” in an article. What the article didn ’ metric ton mention was that he besides once said “ Prop 187 is the final gasp of white America in California ”, he belongs to, or once belonged to, a racist breakaway constitution which plans to coup d’etat the American confederacy west for Mexico to rule, and at a holocene ceremony honoring early black leaders he called one of the early union members a n***** in front of 400 blacken leaders. 100 people walked out of the meet room, though it was reported as 25 % in order to diminish the consequence. none of this was included in the article about the “ elated son of an immigrant ” More recently there is the example of multiple murders on private estate in Wisconsin by a Hmong immigrant. In actual fact, of the six people murdered all but one were unarmed, one was a woman, beat casings were found all around the area, meaning the murderer chased his unarmed victims all around to try and kill them. The floor as reported called all the victims “ hunters ” to conjure up the double of baffling armed men in a fair crusade, even though the victims weren ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate “ hunting ” at all but were warning the killer to stay off of their private land, hence he murdered them. The upset details only came out long after the floor was initially reported. Are the authors of these articles lying to the populace by not presenting all of the information about the stories, or are the authors indeed incompetent and clueless that they aren ’ thymine even mindful of these major points even though they are supposed to be writing about these authoritative stories ? The authors are either liars or morons .
# 22. Distracting or Absurd Metrics : With this technique, the writer attempts to drag the reviewer into a argument about what the reader is flush seeing. This is normally used when the propagandist is falling behind and must hurry to destroy correct sympathize of events. example : During the french riots many writers began arguing about the act of cars burned and whether the numeral still “ indicated ” orgy levels. In early words, let ’ s argue about what a orgy is, and when you have enough destroy cars, we ’ ll spill the beans. meanwhile, you ’ rhenium discussing burn cars and not the ongoing riots .
hypertext transfer protocol : //www.strategypage.com/htmw/htiw/articles/20051129.aspx
It is a fundamental error to see the foe as a set of targets. The enemy in war is a group of people. Some of them will have to be killed. Others will have to be captured or driven into hide. The overwhelm majority, however, have to be persuaded.
— Frederick Kagan, “ War and Aftermath, ” Policy Review, Aug 03
Trying to get people to reason in a direction that is not natural for them is like trying to teach a farrow to sing. You don ’ metric ton carry through anything and you annoy the pig bed.
— E. Jeffrey Conklin & William Weil
populace opinion is everything. With public sentiment nothing can fail ; without it nothing can succeed. He who molds public opinion goes deeper than he who enacts statutes or pronounces decisions. He makes statutes or decisions possible or impossible to execute.
— President Abraham Lincoln
One can not engage war under present conditions without the subscribe of populace opinion, which is enormously molded by the press and other forms of propaganda.
— General Douglas MacArthur
The real target in war is the mind of the foe commander, not the bodies of his troops.
— Captain Sir Basil Liddell Hart, Thoughts on War, 1944
The print press is the greatest weapon in the armory of the modern commander…. In Asia we were so weak physically that we could not let the metaphysical weapon corrode unused.
— T.E. Lawrence
All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being axiomatic.
— Arthur Schopenhauer
If a serviceman will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts. But if he will be content to begin with doubts he shall end in certainties.
— Francis Bacon