Media of propaganda
There are literally thousands of electronic, written, audiovisual, and organizational media that a contemporary propagandist might use. All human groupings are electric potential organizational media, from the family and early little organizations through advertise and public relations firms, trade unions, churches and temples, theatres, readers of novels and poetry, special-interest groups, political parties and front organizations to the governmental structures of nations, international coalitions, and universal organizations like the United Nations and its agencies. From all this variety show of media, propagandists must choose those few media ( particularly leaders, function models, and organizations ) to whose messages they think the intend reactors are specially attentive and centripetal.
Reading: propaganda – Media of propaganda
In recent years the second coming of personal computers and mobile phones and the development of the Internet has brought about a massive, worldwide proliferation of systems and facilities for news gather, publish, broadcasting, holding meetings, and speechmaking. At present, about everyone ’ sulfur mind is bombarded daily by far more media, symbols, and messages than the human organism can possibly pay attention to. The mind reels under noisy assortments of information bits about equal politicians, rival political programs and doctrines, new technical discoveries, insistently advertised commercial products, and fresh views on morality, ecological horrors, and military nightmares. This screen of communication overload already has resulted in the alienation of millions of people from a lot of modern life. Overload and alienation can be expected to reach even higher levels in come generations as calm higher densities of population, intercultural contacts, and communication facilities cause economic, political, doctrinal, and commercial rivalries to become calm more intense. inquiry has demonstrated repeatedly that most reactors attempt, consciously or unconsciously, to cope with severe communication overload by developing three mechanisms : selective attention, selective perception, and selective recall. That is, they pay attention to only a few media ; they fail ( often unconsciously ) to perceive therein any big symmetry of the messages that they find uncongenial ; and, having perceived, even after this screen, a certain number of graceless messages, they repress these in wholly or in function ( i.e., can not readily remember them ). contemporary propagandists therefore try to find out : ( 1 ) what formative experiences and styles of department of education have predisposed their intend audiences to their current “ media preferences ” ; ( 2 ) which of all the Web sites, electronic or print publications, television shows, leaders, and function models in the worldly concern they do in fact pay attention to ; and ( 3 ) by which of these they are most influence. These topics have thus become the subjects of huge amounts of commercial and academician research.
In most cases, reactors are found to pay the most care to the Web sites, publications, shows, leaders, and function models with whose views they already agree. People as a dominion attend to communications not because they want to learn something fresh or reconsider their own philosophies of life but because they seek psychological reassurance about their existing beliefs and prejudices. When propagandists do get people ’ mho attention by putting messages into the few media the people heed, they may discover that, to hold people ’ randomness attention, they must draft a message that does not depart very far from what people already want to believe. Despite the popular stereotypes about geniuses of politics, religion, or advertise whose brainy propaganda converts the multitudes overnight, the plain fact is that evening the most skilled propagandist must normally content himself with a identical modest goal : box a message in such a way that much of it is companion and reassuring to the intended reactors and alone a little is therefore fresh or true as to threaten them psychologically. therefore, revivalists have an a priori advantage over spokespersons of a overhaul ethic, and conservative politicians an advantage over progressives. Propaganda that aims to induce major changes is sealed to take great amounts of clock, resources, patience, and indirection, except in times of revolutionary crisis when old beliefs have been shattered and new ones have not yet been provided. In ordinary periods ( intercrisis periods ), propaganda for changes, however desirable, is likely to be, in the words of the german sociologist Max Weber, “ a slow boring of intemperate boards. ” For reasons barely indicated, the most effective media as a principle ( for messages other than the simplest of commercial ad ) are not the impersonal batch media like electronic and print newspapers and news services and television but preferably those few associations or organizations ( reference groups ) with which individuals feel identified or to which they aspire to relate their identity. quite much, ordinary people not only avoid but actively distrust the mass media or fail to understand their messages, but in the heat of a character group they feel at home, assume that they understand what is going on, and feel that they are certain to receive a certain degree of aroused answer and personal protection. The first reference group, of course, is the family. But many other groups perform analogous functions—for example, the group of sports fans, the church, the craft union, the baseball club, the alumni group, the clique or gang. By influencing the key members of such a group, propagandists may establish a “ sociable relay ” groove that can amplify their message. By therefore concentrating on the few, they increase their chances of reaching the many—often far more efficaciously than they could through a overplus of communications aimed at larger audiences. therefore, one crucial ploy involves the compound use of mass media and reference-group channels—preparing materials for such media as newsworthiness releases or broadcasts in ways designed specifically to reach certain groups ( and specially their elites and leaders ), who can then relay the messages to other sets of reactors.