Whether the propagandist works in a peacetime or wartime situation, he uses certain tools to mobilize opinions and attitudes. What are these tools ?
An crucial one is suggestion. Another news for it is stimulation .
The propagandist tries to stimulate others to accept without challenge his own assertions, or to act as he wants them to do. The idea of using suggestion or foreplay as a propaganda device is that it will lead a populace to accept a suggestion flush though there are not coherent grounds for accepting it. The propagandist normally tries to side-step critical reactions from his audience, and consequently suggestion is one of his most crucial tools .
How does the propagandist use this tool ? By making wide and positivist statements. By presenting his statements in bare and familiar speech. By refusing to admit, or even suggest, that there is another side to the question. Hitler ’ s brutal and lineal suggestion that the Jews sold out the german people in World War I—the “ jab in the bet on, ” the national socialist propagandists called it—is an example of this kind of propaganda. Another model is the recur Nazi propagandist affirmation that Prime Minister Churchill and President Roosevelt are “ warmongers. ”

suggestion is a highly develop art in commercial advertising. An obvious exemplar is the bland resolution that some brand of vitamin will remedy “ that tired and run-down feel. ”
A second propaganda creature is only a insidious class of suggestion. This tool is the use of hints, insinuations, or indirect statements .
An example or two from the plain of advertising will illustrate this method acting. The sponsorship of a symphony orchestra by a commercial company may be expected to create a spirit of good will on the part of the hearer toward the product of the patronize. sometimes programs designed to portray the life and culture of another area are propagandist in nature, designed to “ sell ” that nation to listeners in a base country .
A third method of propaganda is the appeal to the known desires of an audience. Psychologists say that desire is an crucial divisor in impression. Thus some persons may support some unsound economic scheme because they desire an income in their old long time. Others will subscribe to some deceitful “ scheme of psychology ” in order to improve their “ personality. ”
The self-interested propagandist will study populace public opinion to find out what things people are “ for ” or “ against ” in order to decide on the labels that he will use to bring approximately coveted reactions. He knows that such words as “ department of justice, ” “ Constitution, ” “ Americanism, ” and “ law and decree, ” which arouse favorable attitudes, will serve as a favorable backdrop for his message, and so he uses them. On the early hired hand, he may use certain other words—for example, “ root ” or “ un-american ” —to influence his listeners to reject a cause or idea that he regards vitamin a unfriendly to his own interests .
Hitler is adept and wholly unscrupulous in appealing to assorted groups in Germany. There has been small consistency in his appeals, but there have been many suggested cure-alls for discontent or dysphoric groups. The insincerity of the Nazi performance is revealed in the instruction of a careful scholar who says, “ National Socialism has no political or sociable theory. It has no philosophy and no refer for the truth. In a given situation it will accept any theory that might prove utilitarian and it will abandon that theory a soon as the situation changes. … National Socialism is for agrarian reform and against it, for private property and against it, for idealism and against it. ”
The ad valet appeals to desire in the matter to of his customer. The desire to be strong and healthy, to be socially acceptable, to be beautiful, sells drug products, cosmetics, reducing preparations, soaps, perfumes. Anyone who is accustomed to reading advertisements will instantaneously recall dozens of illustrations of appeals to such desires used to promote a across-the-board diverseness of products .
The skilled propagandist besides knows the techniques of “ making ideas stick. ” It is because of this cognition that he resorts to key words and slogans, shibboleths, or other symbolic forms .
The advertise motto packs meaning into short sentences. The purpose is to get them noticed. They will find their way into the minds of people. When a person is choosing a commodity to buy, it is expected that the motto will come easily to the coat of his judgment. A good many years ago advertisers discovered that “ reason-why ” appeals were not constantly effective. Appeals were shortened and emotionalized, since many readers will not wade through explanations of why one commodity is better than another .
The history of international political propaganda, the experts tell us, is full of examples of the use of contact slogans. For exemplar, “ the vomit man of the Golden Horn ” was used as a description of the erstwhile Turkish Empire. In Hitler ’ s name-calling techniques, the democratic nations are called “ Pluto-democracies. ” While seeking might he used the campaign cry : “ The Versailles Treaty is a grotesque lie. ” Under Mussolini, the Fascists were fond of such slogans as “ a book and a rifle make a perfective Fascist ” and “ a plow makes a furrow but a sword defends it. ”
Though the nazi propaganda both inside and outside Germany has been marked by terror, this is not a common characteristic of slogans and symbols. No one could challenge such Red Cross slogans as “ All you need is a affection and a dollar. ” No one could question the socially minded pulsation behind the Salvation Army motto, “ A man may be down but he ’ sulfur never out. ” Compelling slogans have been devised to win support for war easing, residential district assistant, and many other such activities .
sometimes slogans have fired the imaginations of people in the by and continued their influence down to the present. One authority suggests that if a motto catches correctly and objectively “ the underlying forces in a critical site, ” it may turn out to be “ vital and lasting. ” We remember such affect slogans as “ No tax income without Representation ” from the american Revolution, “ Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity ” from the french Revolution, and “ Peace, Bread, and Land ” from the russian Revolution .
Propaganda makes use of slogans, but it besides makes effective use of symbols. A symbol is a concrete representation of atmosphere theme, carry through, or thing—a sign that stands for something, as crossed rifles stand for the Infantry and as wings and propeller represent the Air Forces.

A symbol can be a news, a commemorate, an object, a song, a flag, an image, a painting, a statue, or some collective or grouped representation—anything that conveys a common idea to masses of people. A symbol is a kind of cement that holds together a social group .
The propagandist knows the art of working with symbols. He uses symbols to develop both favorable and unfavorable attitudes .
symbol use will create likenesses that are used much as a stenographer uses shorthand. Cartoonists have stereotyped symbols to represent the taxpayer, the college professor, and many others. One cartoonist pictured the “ dry ” as a grandiloquent, flimsy, long-nosed, black-garbed figure in a hack hat, and others portrayed the saloonkeeper as a identical fatten, barrel-like figure. The “ capitalist ” was once pictured as a huge diamond-studded man wearing a befit covered with dollar signs .
There is some reason to believe that in the past half century there has been a decrease in the numeral of popular symbols used in the western nations. But a huge sum of symbolism has been created by the fascist, Nazi, and communist states .
The Nazis made their symbols so unmistakable and conspicuous that if any german omitted to display or use them, he would be cursorily detected. These symbols, you will recall, included the Nazi salute, the swastika, and a lot of titles, badges, and uniforms. “ Hitler himself, ” writes one assurance, “ must have his own entitle, denied by particular decree to all other leaders, and he won capital popular blessing, after the death of Hindenburg, by pretending that the title President was altogether excessively august for him. ”
The habit of “ non-Aryan ” as a symbol by Hitler and the Nazi hierarchy was a demagogic device to encourage the persecution of minority scapegoats who were neither numerous nor powerful adequate to resist the violent tactics of the Nazi propagandists and national socialist terrorists .
Catchwords and slogans abound in Nazi propaganda, contrived for the sake of impressing the german people. The Nazis are fond of such important and high-flown words and phrases as “ immutable, ” “ abiding, ” and “ for all future time. ” Opportunists, they are quick to discard a motto when it has served its purpose. then new ones are coined and must be on all german lips .
The foreman symbol used to inspire the japanese civilian and fighting valet is the emperor. The japanese higher-ups maintain their internal world power by making a god of their emperor—emphasizing his allege descent from the sunday god. This symbol of the emperor as idol is used to stimulate the fighting effectiveness of soldiers and sailors. The Japanese, in their propaganda attacks on Americans and British, play up the symbol “ white exploiter. ” They disguise japanese imperialism behind the symbol of “ co-prosperity ” in their efforts to win converts among the brown and scandalmongering races .
The Japs Call It “Co-Prosperity
Another proficiency used by the propagandist is the prestige component in homo relations .
The psychologists are not agreed as to the extent to which attitudes and opinions can be propagated by prestige, but it seems certain that prestige does play an crucial role. The determine the parent has over his child, for case, can be traced in part to the prestige of an adult-in size, strength, cognition, and exponent .
Some individuals or groups resent expert opinion and are unwilling to respond to the suggestions made by fact-finders and scientists. But there seems to be no doubt that in politics prestige is a decide factor. A pate of men whose biographies were included in Who ’ south Who was used, for exemplify, in a political campaign some years ago to indicate that persons described as “ superior and influential ” were chiefly on the side of one party and candidate. The prestige of businessmen has been a factor in political campaigns, particularly in times of prosperity .
In wartime, belligerents stress the prestige of their military and political leadership. sometimes this prestige is increased by legends, which are another means of influencing the attitudes of people. normally legends are built up around a core of truth, but the end consequence may be like a character from fiction. The legends of Ulysses, Roland, and Siegfried, for exercise, grew up around mighty warriors. Whether legends are intentionally created or not, there can be no doubt that they are accepted and believed by many people, and so they influence the impart of people. person has said that “ masses of world live in these images ” or legends.

Hitler, Mussolini, and their followers have been hardworking mythmakers. The near-deification of Hitler by the Nazis and the proficiency of multitude hypnotism of the Germans are things that we, as a democratic people, find it very difficult to understand. To us it is incredible that a fanatic, acute, uneducated Munich agitator, unschooled in economics and politics, should be exalted by mass appeals and terroristic tactics into an almighty and “ infallible ” leader, “ Der Führer, ” who exacts undisputed obedience from his people. This “ infallibility ” that the Nazis have credited to Hitler is bluffly expressed in the words of Robert Ley, the director of the Nazi Labor Front. “ Germany must obey like a well-trained soldier, ” he said. “ The Führer, Adolf Hitler, is constantly right. ”
Why did large sections of the german public come to accept this legend of the Munich agitator ? One historian thinks that it was because millions of Germans were yearning for “ an end of all thought, will, or action on their own part in the conduct of their own affairs. ” The idea of a Führer, he believes, expressed their satisfaction in having found a leader who to them was “ a symbol of absolute authority, a Great Father, a patriarch-ruler who can be worshipped as an all-wise Messiah, bringing comfort and redemption to his painfully tried children. ” Hitler took “ all province for their own welfare. ” What they had to do was to give him “ implicit faith and blind subordination. ”
From EM 2 : What Is Propaganda ? ( 1944 )

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