• Kristina Frank : We were talking about roles of political parties and we mentioned that there are four of them. We ‘re focusing on two today when you ‘re examining these commercials. One being the character that political parties have is to educate the electorate. Can person remind me what the electorate is ? Riley ?
    riley : The voters .
    Kristina Frank : That ‘s the voters, very well. Thank you, kiddo. And besides, helping your candidates win. That ‘s the unharmed point, is get your guy to win. It ‘s a guy because we ‘ve got two men in this presidential election that we have coming up following month .
    Kristina Frank: We spent about a month on the election serve, and the kids learned unlike things about the election. indeed everything from how are the two main political parties like and different, a little bite about third parties, how do citizens make choices in elections, the roles of different political parties, that screen of thing. And we spend about a month on this. And if I can tie it into a current election going on, like this year, we ‘re actually lucky because there ‘s a presidential election, then I do that, so we ‘re about a couple weeks into it at this orient and we will wrap it up before the actual presidential election happens.

    One of the things that they have to learn when they learn about how citizens make inform choices in elections is they learn that they need to think about propaganda that the campaigns may use, and so I teach them seven unlike types of propaganda. Some of them have learned a little bite about this in seventh grade, vitamin a well, they cover it sometimes in english class or for those kids that took a communications course .
    Kristina Frank : And ultimately, identify in your propaganda, and we talked about seven types, can anyone remember or remind me of any of them ? Emily ?
    Emily : name calling .
    Kristina Frank : name calling, yep. Which is precisely what it sounds like, calling the early person names. Kayla ?
    Kayla : Glittering generality .
    Kristina Frank : good, glittering generality, where you say something, it sounds in truth in truth good, but it does n’t have a wholly fortune of meaning. It ‘s not in truth accomplishable. Jack ?
    Jack : bandwagon .
    Kristina Frank : Bandwagon, which is where you act like everybody ‘s on your side and if they do n’t join your side, they ‘re going to be left out. Coquelin ?
    Coquelin : stack cards .
    Kristina Frank : stack cards, yep. You make it look very very uneven. Brian ?
    Brian : fair plain folks .
    Kristina Frank : precisely plain folks. That ‘s the one where the people who are campaigning are trying to connect with everybody and make it look like, well, I ‘m barely like the rest of you. Christine ?
    Christine : Symbols .
    Kristina Frank : Symbols. Yes, very thoroughly. Things like using the american ease up in your commercials to show patriotism. Shamir ?
    Shamir : Endorsements .
    Kristina Frank : Endorsements. That ‘s where you get person celebrated to say that they support your campaigner. Did we hit them all ? I stopped counting. That was seven ?
    Students : yea .
    Kristina Frank : good deal .
    Kristina Frank: They seem to pick up on that actually well, were able to identify it when they saw it in the commercials we watched in course .
    Kristina Frank : Alright, as I mentioned, we are going to look at four commercials. Two of them are from a more holocene presidential election and two of them are from an election that was some years ago. So we ‘re going to start with the more holocene ones. The first base one we ‘re going to look at is called “ Victory, ” and like I said, you ‘re going to be looking at it from different perspectives .

  • Kristina Frank: We had talked a small bite about political campaign commercials in class already, and some current commercials that they ‘d been seeing on television and what do they like and what do n’t they like. They besides learned a short bit about the roles of political parties and helping to get candidates elected, so they had some background cognition about that, arsenic well as learning about how dress voters make inform choices during elections. So they had that setting cognition coming into this moral, so that when we were watching the commercials in class they could look at it from two different perspectives .
    Kristina Frank : One thing, let me ask you guys actually before I play it, which year is this for this commercial ?
    Students : 2004 .
    Kristina Frank : 2004. You can go ahead and write that down in your first one, the contextualizing questions, which is where we ‘re classify of setting the stage for when does this commercial contract topographic point and what is going on in this time period. And who are our two candidates ?
    Students : Bush and Kerry .
    Kristina Frank : Bush and Kerry. What is Bush ‘s first diagnose ?
    Students : George .
    Kristina Frank : George. What party does he belong to ?
    Students : The Republicans .
    Kristina Frank : He ‘s the Republican .
    Voiceover : I ‘m George W. Bush, and I approve this message .
    Voiceover : In 1972, there were 40 democracies. today, 120. freedom is spreading throughout the populace like a dawn. And this Olympics, there will be two more barren nations. And two fewer terrorist regimes. With intensity, decide, and courage, majority rule will triumph over terror. And hope will defeat hatred .
    Kristina Frank : What year is this election taking put, did we say ?
    Students : 2004 .
    Kristina Frank : Cici ?
    Cici : 2004 .
    Kristina Frank : 2004. The last one that had happened was in 2000. What major event has taken topographic point between 2000 and 2004. Andrew ?
    andrew : 9/11 .
    Kristina Frank : 9/11 has happened .
    Students : : Oooooooh .
    Kristina Frank : 9/11 has happened. so at this point, the U.S. at the clock that this election is happening, is engaged in a war. And of class we ‘re in Iraq and we ‘re in Afghanistan, but it ‘s screen of a larger war, it ‘s normally referred to as a war on something ? Cici ?
    Cici : terrorism ?
    Kristina Frank : yea. Or flush good terror. The War on Terror .
    Kristina Frank : yea, Alison ?
    Alison : can you have an endorsement with celebrated people and celebrated things ? Like if you have pictures of like a celebrated identify .
    Kristina Frank : yea, I do n’t know if the Olympics would actually work here because you do n’t have the Olympics saying—
    student : ‘I ‘m voting for’—
    Kristina Frank : right, precisely. precisely, yeah. Can you—do you have something else for that one ?
    Alison : Yeah, we have [ ? ] .
    Kristina Frank: One half of the class was watching the commercial from the perspective of person who was working on a campaign. And then they were thinking more so approximately why were certain things put into this commercial, why did they pick this alternatively of that ?
    Kristina Frank : Words and images that stood out to you in this commercial. Adam ?
    adam : I saw like freedom, and like spreading like a dawn, I thought that was standing out a distribute .
    Kristina Frank : identical good. Andrew ?
    andrew : Terrorists .
    Kristina Frank : Terrorists. That give voice. Alright. julian ?
    julian : Olympics .
    Kristina Frank : Olympics, good. Shamir ?
    Shamir : Forty democracies .
    Kristina Frank : forty democracies. Kaitlin ?
    Kaitlin : The swimmer, like throwing her fist up in the air .
    Kristina Frank : all right, that double there at the end they have. Good. Cici ?
    Cici : Two fewer terrorist regimes .
    Kristina Frank : excellent. So what ‘s the message of this commercial, do you think ?
    scholar : He wants to win the War on Terror .
    Kristina Frank : Alright, I think that works. Anybody have something else they want to add ? Cici ?
    Cici : George Bush is like helping free the world from terrorists .
    Kristina Frank : identical good. What kind of emotions do people have when they ‘re watching the Olympics ?
    student : They ‘re excited and all pumped up .
    Kristina Frank : You get excited and you get pumped up and—go ahead .
    scholar : They get competitive .
    Kristina Frank : very good. Yeah. immediately what else, Andrew ?
    scholar : patriotic .
    Kristina Frank : patriotic. good. Why would they use swimmers and the Olympics in a campaign commercial ?
    student : Is it because when they ‘re swimming, they ‘re swimming for America, so it makes you feel patriotic to see your swimmers in a political campaign. so when you see it following to the other person you think that they are with the other person .
    Kristina Frank : What do you mean by the end of that ?
    scholar : Like, it makes you think that the campaigner is supportive of the swimmers .
    Kristina Frank : Oh, possibly .
    student : Because when I think of the president of the united states as patriotic and affirmative and—
    Kristina Frank : yea, possibly they ‘re trying to do that, they ‘re trying to associate those emotions that you feel when you see that with this campaign for President Bush .
    Kristina Frank: The other one-half of the class, they had questions that revolved around them being a voter in that election, and thinking about o, did I see diagonal in this commercial, did they use propaganda ?
    Kristina Frank : Alright, let me hear a little propaganda, and I will take it from either side. Christine, go .
    Christine : I chose symbols because it showed, like, flags of the world, and then it showed the american english flag .
    Kristina Frank : identical adept. Yeah, and what colors were the swimsuits that they were wearing ?
    Students : Red, white, and blue .
    Kristina Frank : Red, whiten, and blue. Right, patriotic colors. Good. What else ? Riley ?
    riley : I said endorsement, because I came back to the Olympic swimmer .
    Kristina Frank : I do n’t think it ‘s a real one. so if it was, then I would agree with you on that. Yeah .
    scholar : I think it ‘s kind of a aglitter generalization because it ‘s all hope is estimable for the [ ? ] and everything .
    Kristina Frank : yea. identical good. And Adam ?
    scholar : I said glittering generalities because, arsenic well, for kind of the same thing. Like, how do you say, there ‘s a 120 democracies nowadays and how like hope will defeat hatred and how there will be a lot of exemption. I think that ‘s kind of general, how like everyone wants exemption and stuff .
    Kristina Frank : excellent. very good .
  • Kristina Frank : You guys have now switched roles. You are now going to look at this commercial from the position of a voter, you are looking at it from the position of person working on a campaign staff. So I want you to go ahead and fill in the acme with who you ‘re presently campaigning for. That information, Gabriella .
    so, let me go ahead and play this one .
    John Kerry : I defended this area as a young valet and I will defend it as President. We need a hard military and we need potent alliances. And then we will be able to tell the terrorists, you will lose, and we will win. The future does n’t belong to fear. It belongs to freedom .
    Voiceover : The democratic National Committee is responsible for the contents of this ad .
    Kristina Frank : Alright, we ‘ll start with you guys over hera this time, the campaign staff members. What did you notice in this commercial ? Words or images that stood out to you. Tori ?
    Tori : When he said, the future does n’t belong to fear, it belongs to freedom .
    Kristina Frank : commodity. Christine, and then Emily .
    Tori : When he said, I ‘ll tell the terrorists we will win and you will lose .
    Kristina Frank : very dear. Emily .
    Emily : When he said that he defended the area as a unseasoned man and that he [ ? ] as president of the united states .
    Kristina Frank : beneficial. Gabriella ?
    Gabriella : Like the whole crowd was holding up posters with him .
    Kristina Frank : yea. Let ‘s come binding to that in fair a second. Alison ?

    Alison : The american flag .
    Kristina Frank : The american english flag. Excellent. You have a whole crowd there. What is this a scene of, in this commercial ? Where are they ? Cici ?
    scholar : A lecture ?
    Kristina Frank : It ‘s a speech. Maggie ?
    Maggie : Like a rally of some kind .
    Kristina Frank : Hm, I think rally—Riley, you got it ?
    riley : The democratic Convention ?
    Kristina Frank : yea, this is the democratic National Convention that he is making this speech at. Alright, very good. Andrew, what you got ? Fact or opinion ?
    andrew : fact .
    Kristina Frank : fact. What ‘s your fact ?
    andrew : He served in the military .
    Kristina Frank : Served in the military. Jack ?
    Jack : An opinion is, you will lose and we will win .
    Kristina Frank : You will lose and we will win .
    student : Like, for an opinion, we need solid alliances .
    Kristina Frank : We need strong alliances. Excellent. And Ben ?
    ben : And we need a stronger military .
    Kristina Frank : And we need a stronger military. Alright, the focus here is on military, working together with other countries, we need a stronger military. He served in the military. Does anybody know when he served ?
    Students : Vietnam .
    Kristina Frank : Vietnam .
    scholar : Yeah !
    Kristina Frank : okay, he served in Vietnam. We are involved in a war on terror. John Kerry is emphasizing his military experience. ‘I have experience fight. ‘ George Bush did n’t. So he ‘s using this as, ‘hey, I ‘m the more have one. ‘ What ‘s this message that he is conveying in this commercial ?
    student : He ‘s saying that he knows more about what war is, so he might be trying to convey that he knows what to do about it and possibly George Bush does n’t .
    Kristina Frank : yea, I think that is a big part of what he ‘s doing here is saying, ‘I know, I have know, I ‘m going to be the more stipulate drawing card here to guide us through this war on terror. ‘ Okay, propaganda. Go ahead, Cici .
    Cici : Okay, bandwagon. because there ‘s so many people there .
    Kristina Frank : absolutely, it ‘s a friendly crowd. They ‘re all Democrats, yeah, it ‘s bandwagon, everybody ‘s on our side. Yeah. Go ahead, Riley .
    riley : I was going to say plain folks, but I do n’t know, because he was like ‘I was in the military— ‘
    Kristina Frank : yea, I had a pair other people say that, besides. He ‘s classify of emphasizing that. Because again, John Kerry is a affluent man, like a draw of candidates, but he ‘s emphasizing this. ‘But like a lot of people in this state, I served in the military, besides. ‘ indeed yea, I can see that, and Andrew ?
    andrew : Symbols, with the U.S. flag .
    Kristina Frank : absolutely, you saw the U.S. masthead, crimson, white, and blue in it. Alright, quickly, similarities and differences, what do you see that ‘s the same between these two commercials. Gabriella ?
    Gabriella : Both of them are talking about exemption and the terrorism .
    Kristina Frank : yea, very dependable. Both lecture about exemption, patriotism .
    Cici : They ‘re both like, supporting the candidate that they feature. Like some commercials are like defacing other people .
    Kristina Frank : Oh, o. so not possibly the minus ads that we tend to see, it ‘s a fiddling more about front at the good things that I ‘ve done. Excellent. Alright. Differences ? Shamir ?
    Shamir : Kerry, he seemed like he would strengthen our military more, he talked way more about—
    Kristina Frank : okay, more focused on the military aspect of it, identical commodity. Gabriella ?
    Gabriella : well, he was like, he had signs all around about him and then George Bush like you only mentioned his name like once or doubly .
    Kristina Frank : yea, I ‘ve had a number of people point that out as a difference. George Bush ‘s commercial, you see him at the begin and you see him right at the end, but he ‘s not the concentrate focus of the lie of that commercial, whereas in Kerry ‘s, he is, it ‘s all Kerry throughout the solid commercial .
    student : Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry .
    Kristina Frank : It is Kerry Kerry Kerry, yes. And Cici ?
    Cici : Like, in the Kerry commercial, they ‘re actually talking about what he ‘s going to do and stuff and like the Bush one was a little obscure, like just some ideas .
    Kristina Frank : What did Bush ‘s screen of focus on a little bit more ? Democracy, what else ? You said that Kerry ‘s was more on what I will do. Yeah, it ‘s kind of like what has happened. Yeah, and you see that happening a lot of times when you have candidates who are already in office and they ‘re running for reelection. They ‘re going to emphasize ‘here ‘s what I ‘ve accomplished so far. ‘

  • Kristina Frank: And then after we had done the 2004 commercials, I showed them two commercials from 1964. And at that point, I good mixed the questions together so that they were getting a mix of both from the campaign staff perspective and from the voters .
    Kristina Frank : This is 1964. Who are our candidates running that year ? Adam ?
    adam : Johnson versus Goldwater .
    Kristina Frank : At this clock, what is the war that is going on ? And again, it ‘s a short bite unlike, like we said the ‘War on Terror ‘ is more than justing fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan, it ‘s larger than that, it ‘s protecting our state, it ‘s fighting terrorism everywhere. What war are we talking about here ? Jack ?
    Jack : The Cold War ?
    Kristina Frank : It is the Cold War .
    teacher : Hand over your heart. ready ? Begin. I pledge commitment to the flag of the United States of America—
    Krushchev : [ speaks russian ]
    teacher : —and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible—
    Krushchev : [ speaks russian ]
    teacher : —with familiarity and justice for all .
    Goldwater : I want american kids to grow up as Americans. And they will, if we have the guts to make our intentions clear. thus clear they do n’t need transformation or interpretation, just esteem for a country prepare, as no nation in all history always was .
    Voiceover : In your heart, you know he ‘s correct. Vote for Barry Goldwater .
    Kristina Frank : Guy who ‘s giving the actor’s line .
    scholar : I do n’t know who he is .
    Kristina Frank : What can you tell me about him ?
    student : He ‘s russian or—
    Kristina Frank : Alright, put it down. Yeah. And how do you know that ?
    scholar : He was speaking a different language .
    Kristina Frank : He is speaking a different terminology. now let me ask you, considering this is the Cold War era, where do you think he is ? What lyric do you think that is ?
    student : I do n’t know he had—Russian .
    student : russian .
    Kristina Frank : credibly a pretty good guess there .
    What do you think they are trying to communicate in this commercial ? Keeping in mind that this is the Cold War era ?
    student : They want them to stay like, not Communist .
    Kristina Frank : full. And it ‘s a campaign commercial, so what ‘s the connection there ? Shoeby, you do n’t want your kids to be communist, Barry Goldwater ‘s run for president, how do you make certain that your kids will not become Communists ? Bingo .
    Words that stood out to you ? Or images ? Things that you saw that stood out to you. Julian ?
    Communists, for certain. Shamir ?
    Shamir : ‘We will bury you. ‘
    Kristina Frank : ‘We will bury you. ‘ That ‘s right. Josh ?
    Josh : ‘Your children will be Communists. ‘
    Kristina Frank : ‘Your children will be Communists. ‘ good. Adam ?
    adam : The american flag and the Pledge of Allegiance .
    Kristina Frank : very full, yes. What is the target of this commercial ? You have got the leader of the Soviet Union saying ‘your children ‘ and whose children does he mean ?
    Students : Ours .
    Kristina Frank : ‘Your children are going to be Communists ! We ‘re going to bury you. ‘ What is the luff of this, thinking that this is a crusade commercial, for Barry Goldwater ? What is the Goldwater political campaign saying ? Kayla ?
    Kayla : Saying that we ‘ll like, keep America the same, that we wo n’t turn into those Communists. People at that time were like scared that the world would like—but it did n’t actually do that .
    Kristina Frank : That is an excellent orient. You need to put yourself in that fourth dimension period and what people were feeling at that time. This was a very real fear that people had .
    This one is called “ Peace Little Girl. ” It is from the same election year. This is a Lyndon Johnson commercial .
    little Girl : One, two, three, four, five, seven, six, six, eight, nine, nine—
    Voiceover : Ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, one, zero .
    Lyndon Johnson : These are the stakes : To make a universe in which all of God ‘s children can live, or to go into the darkness. We must either love each other, or we must die .
    Voiceover : vote for President Johnson on November third. The stakes are excessively high for you to stay home .
    Students : Oh my gosh. Woah. I ‘m scar .
    Kristina Frank : Words and images that stand out. What did you see ? Emily ?
    Emily : The explosion. Bang bang, boom boom .
    Kristina Frank : The explosion, for certain. Cici ?
    Cici : Like, counting down .
    Kristina Frank : Counting down. What is the message that they are trying to give in this commercial ? What do you think, Copeland ?
    Copeland : ‘We must love each other or we must die. ‘
    Kristina Frank : Alright. Take it a dance step further. Remember, it ‘s a crusade commercial. You are trying to get Johnson elected through this commercial. therefore to sort of tie these images that you are seeing together, ‘we have to love each other or die, ‘ what does that have to do with electing Johnson ?
    student : It was during the Cold War, so we were going to help him [ ? ] and get along with the Russians [ ? ] .
    Kristina Frank : That ‘s very truly good. Yeah, and this is besides a chemical reaction to Barry Goldwater, a well. He took, again, a very hard stand against Communism and some people were concerned that because of his position, the direction that he approached this, that it ‘s going to be more likely that we might end up in a nuclear war .
    Kristina Frank: I ‘ve noticed the mention of the Cold War, that ‘s something that they learn about in the seventh grad and it seems to stick with them, so I thought that that would be good to tie in. I wanted something recent and I wanted something from quite a while ago. And I besides like the fact that they took a very different approach to the issue of war .
    Kristina Frank : Let me ask you something about similarities and differences between the two sets of commercials. Anything that you saw. Adam ?
    Adam : They both, like, involved hypothetical wars, like the 2004 one is the War on Terrorism and this one is the Cold War .
    Kristina Frank : They both byzantine war, yep. Anything else ? julian ?
    julian : They both agree that we need to defend and protect the nation .
    Kristina Frank : very dear. They both agree that we need to defend and protect our nation. Differences ?
    student : The ones in 1964 are more like a movie, and the ones in 2004 are more enlightening .
    Kristina Frank : good. How about tonicity ? Adam ?
    adam : The ones in 1964 were emotional and stuff.

    Kristina Frank : What kind of emotions ?
    adam : well, like sadness and fear .
    Kristina Frank : I think it brings it much more to animation for them, when they can actually see the commercials and see the substantial examples, and I think it makes it much more real number for them, I think it ‘s better for them to get ideas from that sort of a informant. I think it makes it much more active, american samoa well .

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